Fortified Wine
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Fortified wines also called fortified wines are wines made from a process system fermentation and aging, which increase their alcohol content (between 15 ° and 23 °) and its stability, which allows them to maintain their ch...

Fortified wines also called fortified wines are wines made from a process system fermentation and aging, which increase their alcohol content (between 15 ° and 23 °) and its stability, which allows them to maintain their characteristics and properties for a long time. In its development, lso fortified wines leave pale and light wines, whose selection is made during the first days of January, after the harvest, that its alcohol content is increased by the addition of wine alcohol, with which boots made in oak with a capacity of 550 liters filled, leaving a small air space to allow the yeast develop in the surface of the wine. Yeast begins to appear a few days, sometimes forming a floating layer thickness approximately two centimeters (three quarters of an inch) and its color varies from creamy white and brown lightly.

The aging process varies depending on the type of generous:

Finos: his boots are empty in the sixth and occupy the cooler and wetter areas of the winery. Inside boots, wines evolve by biological aging, ie, by the action of yeast that accumulate on the wine surface forming the so called flor. Because this process also given the generic name of wines in bloom. Its alcohol content is between 15 ° and 16 °.
Odorous: his boots are completely filled and placed in the highest areas or in places where heat acts on them. Wine split base with more color and more body to undergo oxidative aging in which the evolution takes place by the action of oxygen on wine, which comes through the pores of the boot. Its alcohol content is between 18 ° and 19 °.
The Amontillados: depart from fine wines underwent a second header to place them with an alcohol content of 18º to 19º. Then they continue his upbringing as oloroso. Other fortified wines such as chamomile or palo cortado come from the different qualities of these three types are either product mix with sweet wines.
The best known fortified wines are the sherries and wines of Montilla-Moriles in Spain, and the wines of the Douro Valley and Porto in Portugal.

The Spanish fortified wines, aged in the cellar in boots, placed over each other to form up to three height levels: the closest to the ground are screeds, the hatcheries are those found at the next level and then several groups of hatcheries and Pavers where the wine is from one to another of the youngest to the oldest, so that the boots remain filled at the end of the process, in a process called shift scales. The wine intended for marketing is extracted from the solera, about one third of the contents of each boot is subjected to a nod to unify qualities. This space is covered by a sixth of the content of boots closest to the floor in a process called spray criadera. Then this same procedure is repeated on the upper hatcheries. In the end, the last criadera it is empty and the new headers cuvées are incorporated. Subsequently, it stabilized by a process of clarification and filtration and finally bottled.

Porto wines are not made in screeds, but several port wines selected from different years and grapes are blended, mixed and aged in oak casks for several years.

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