U.S.A.

The history of American viticulture is relatively recent, 70% of the 700 wineries in California was founded after 1966 and in the state of New York, at least 80% of the 90 active companies created after 1976  European settlers who explored North America called it Vinland because of the variety of vines they found. The first wines were made in th...

The history of American viticulture is relatively recent, 70% of the 700 wineries in California was founded after 1966 and in the state of New York, at least 80% of the 90 active companies created after 1976  European settlers who explored North America called it Vinland because of the variety of vines they found. The first wines were made in the middle of S. XVI by the French Huguenots with native varieties. Thereafter, production was developed in unrelated families with the world of wine, no wine tradition, which led them to experiment with varieties and invest in technology. In the late nineteenth century, phylloxera in the West and Pierce's disease in East devastated the vineyards, leading to the wine industry to a great crash. Between 1919 and 1933 the government Prohibition banned the manufacture, sale and transport of alcohol in different states, with the exception of sacramental wine, which allowed to keep open some wineries. With the end of prohibition, the wineries began to emerge from California, to meet a growing demand for table wines and sweet wines, low quality, however, supported by universities such as California and New York directed production towards quality wines through research and seminars on winemaking techniques. Since 1978 the TTB (Tax Trade Bureau Alcohol and Snuff) regulates the production winemaking regions called American Viticultural Area AVA (American Wine Area) according to their geographical features. For the AVA appear on the wine label, at least 85% of the grapes used in making wine must be grown in the AVA. Today wine is produced in 45 of the 50 United States of America, spread throughout the country in a variety of landscapes, soils and microclimates that have produced many different wines. However, California wines and Chardonnay grape variety, are those who have given the American viticulture recognition. United States of America has four major regions or wine producing states:   California is the most important, accounting for about 90% of production and 45% of U.S. wineries. With a mild climate, well suited vineyards and renowned winemakers, made mostly of French varieties varietal.  The Northwest in Washington state, with 14,000 hectares of vineyards is focused on white wines, and Oregon with about 2500 ha, more than half of them planted with Pinot Noir. It is a developing region that produces increasingly good wines ..   The Northeast is the second largest producer, with 3% of production concentrated in the state of New York, cultivated mainly with strain Concord. Beside him, producing wines other Northeastern states such as New England, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Maryland.    The South and the Midwest have small wineries that produce good wines. Three types are grown vines: Vitis Vinifera: classical strains imported from Europe, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Chardonnay, Semillon, Muscat and Gewürztraminer. Native strains: the type and Vitisrotundifolia Labrusca Vitis, producing very aromatic wines of average quality. New varieties or hybrids from crosses and grafts, such as Ruby Cabernet, Rubired, Burger, Léon Maréchal, etc.

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